Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, called Toyohara - "bountiful plain" - before the second world war, when the island was Japanese (1905 to 1946). The Japanese losing their only chance of discovering national hydrocarbon reserves, the Russians now exploiting the natural gas resource, liquifying and exporting it in/from При́городное. That pretty much drives the city's economy.
Delft to Yuzhno, 12 000 km apart, with street plans that couldn't be more different. From 8°C to -8°C in three flights with stop-overs at Moscow and Khabarovsk.